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Conservation And Defense 

APRIL 1941 



In Charge of Information and Publications 

Army records for 1941 indicate the startling response by Indians to the mil- 
itary necessities of the current emergency. But military statistics fail to tellthe 
full story of Indian loyalty to their country; to the land they have defended for un- 
known thousands of years. A most significant element in this great and continuing 
struggle is the Indian effort to rebuild and to restore the land on which he lives- 
that part of the whole he still retains. This conservation battle is portrayed in part 
in the current issue which commemorates the eighth anniversary of the Indian Division 
of the Civilian Conservation Corps. In pictures and in words we have attempted to con- 
vey a significant fragment of the total effort and the total result. 

Speaking of pictures recalls that a new photographer appears in the pages 
of this issue. He is, fittingly, employed by the CCC; W. J. Mead, a member of the 
staff of Guy McKinney, Director of Information for CCC. On page 15, James Ortiz, of 
San Juan Pueblo, operates a pump which draws water from the Santa Clara ditch to keep 
the ditch dry for pipe-laying operations; and Indian CCC workers lower a section of 
pipe into a ditch through which a pipeline from Santa Clara Creek will supply water to 
Santa Clara Pueblo and adjoining lands. 

Notable among the pictures of Indians in the Army are those of Dewey Roberts 
and Willard Senache, in the upper half of the frontispiece. Below are Frank Senache, 
Mike Wayne and Dewey Youngbear. All are Sac and Fox Indians from Mesquakie Reservation, 
in Iowa. All are volunteers in the Iowa National Guard. The photographs were made 
available through the courtesy of the Des Moines (Iowa) Register and Tribune. 

On page 18 we see Navajos who came to headquarters to register for selective 
service, equipped with food, packs and guns. They were ready for immediate action. 
Photographs were made by Sumner and supplied to "Indians At Work" by John C. McPhee. 

Indian ceremonial customs are an important part of Indian life. At the re- 
cent Institute on the Future of the American Indian, held in New York, ceremonials 
spoke for themselves. Tewa Indians, pictured on page 22, brought costumes and make-up 
across the country from Tesuque Pueblo, New Mexico, to make an authentic presentation 
of their native dances. The picture was furnished by the Museum of Modern Art. 

The front cover picture by Arthur Rothstein shows Grant McCloud, Paiute In- 
dian, learning to use a bandsaw at Carson Agency, Nevada. 

In 1890 many Indians were killed and more were maimed in the massacre at 
Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. In 1941, on the evening of April 12, Indian braves 
will be guests of honor at a dinner in Washington, D. C, guests of old-time military 
men who fought against the Indians. The Order of Indian Wars, inviting Indian war- 
riors to dine with them as specially honored guests, provide a measure of transforma- 
tion that time has brought. 


Text in this magazine is available for reprinting as desired. 
Pictures will be supplied to the extent of their availability. 

in This Issue 

Comments On The Contributions ...:■•■■,! '."."T77 Inside Front Cover 

Sao and Fox Indians In Iowa National 

Guard (see notes on opposite page) Frontispiece 

Editorial John Collier 

Ross Hardin Surveys A Ditoh Line On 
the Fort MoDermitt Reservation, 
Nevada. (Photo by Arthur Rothstein) 2 

All Is Not Work In the Indian CCC Camps 

(Photo by Dwight Gardin) 4 

Indians Indebted to Justice Van Devanter 6 

Wife of the Interpreter at Zuni Pueblo 

(Photo by Frank Werner) 7 

Pueblo Drums Ten Broeck Williamson 

Hard Working Indian Men In Many States Re- 
build Assets and Morale In CCC-ID Claude C. Cornwall 10 

Summer School Course To Be Continued By 

University of Oklahoma I4 

Thirty-three Indian Agencies Make CCC Safety 

Record in January 16 

Detailed Figures On Indian Enlistments Show 

Extent Of Their Defense Efforts 19 

Three Indian Members Of Company H, 179th In- 
fantry, Oklahoma National Guard 21 

Tewa Indian Dancers From Tesuque Pueblo At 

Museum Of Modern Art (Photo by Albert Fenn) 22 

Indian History In The Making Rosella Senders 23 

Indian Masks At Museum Of Modern Art Exhibit 

(Photo by Soichi Sunami) 2L. 

William Crowe, One of Twenty-Eight Eastern 
Cherokees Who Enlisted In the U. S. Army 
(Photo by Knoxville News Sentinel) 27 

Indians In The News 28 

Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their Re- 
sources Through CCC-ID 30 

Florida Seminoles Build Community Shower As 

CCC-ID Project (Photo by Dwight Gardin) 32 

Federal Court In Utah Upholds Authority Of Sec- 
retary Ickes In Navajo Grazing Areas 34 

Young Wisconsin Chippewa Wins Acclaim For Res- 
cuing Illinois Men From Drowning Inside Back Cover 

Papago Indians On Way To Indian CCC Anniver- 
sary Celebration - Back Cover 





The Eighth Anniversary of Indian C.C.C. has come. There is so 
much that could be told. One could dwell on the great, in many reserva- 
tions the decisive, gains in the conservation and use of resources, which 
Indian C.C.C. has made possible. One could tell how Indian C.C.C. has ex- 
ploded the damaging myth that Indians do not want to work. One could call 
attention to the improved health, through expanded and improved dietary, 
which Indian C.C.C. has bestowed directly upon tens of thousands of Indians 
and indirectly upon scores of thousands. 

But here I dwell upon another aspect, that of adult education. 

Indian C.C.C. was born just when the earlier attitude about Indian 
education was dying. That earlier attitude was discussed in the "Indians At 
Work" editorial for February. The earlier attitude had confronted the Indian 
with a choice: he could retreat into, and rebelliously or passively struggle 
to protect, his Indian personality, his group loyalties, his Indian "web of 
life", or he could forswear his personality and his loyalties and try to 
surrender himself to an unrepresentative part of the white world, believed 
to be wholly incompatible with his Indian world. This earlier attitude pro- 
duced a "social orthopedy" turned upside down - it used social pressure and 
reward to bring about deformity rather than development. 

Indian C.C.C. had no pedagogical doctrine, no special philosophy, 
but it was uniquely situated to help in the repair work which the earlier 
unwise philosophy had made necessary. Coinciding with Indian C.C.C.. an in- 
tensified and many-sided conservation effort was launched in the Indian 


: : ;::|li:::| : :yS;:)i:y,,\ 

Ross Hardin, Paiute Indian, 
and secretary of the local 
tribal council, surveys a 
ditch line on the Fort Mc- 
Dermitt Reservation in 

country. This conservation effort entailed the use of a -wide range of tech- 
nologies essentially modern. The technologies were not just mechanical, but 
they were at the engineering level too, and the economic level, the planning 
level and the ecological level. Ten thousand Indian young men and middle- 
aged men, working in groups, proceeded to master these technologies by us- 
ing them. Indian C.C.C. did not say, "Indians, here is another chance to 
stop being Indians." It said, "This is your Indian C.C.C. Be Indians, and 
be in the great world." And the enrollees did not migrate to distant places, 
but worked and learned at their homes, within their tribal setups, upon 
their own ancient and future lands. 

The use of Indians in managerial and technical capacities was 
stressed as it had never been before. And the Indian C.C.C. did not op- 
erate as a self-sufficient branch of Indian Service, but as a part of the 
whole Indian jurisdictions, drawing to itself the experience and energies 
of the white and Indian staffs, and radiating its effects through the whole 
community of the Indians. 

Perhaps most important of all, Indian C.C.C. did not profess to 
be just an activity for improving the morals or minds of Indians. Important 
and socially needed production, but production through the muscles and also 
the brains of Indians, was the genius of Indian C.C.C. Surely, in these 
years the Indian C.C.C. has come as near as any activity in the United 
States to meeting the lasting challenge of William James, voiced in the 
famous essay on The Moral Equivalent of War. 


Adult education is the task and opportunity of the whole of In- 
dian Service. 

In what other field in America is the opportunity more commanding? 

Here are small human groups, often small enough for every member 
to know all the others. In nearly every case they are groups with a heroic 
tradition. They are groups, since decades or generations ago, desperately 
underprivileged. They now know that they can survive and can advance, but 
only through immediate and sustained effort by themselves. 

These groups, and their individuals, feel impacts from the near 
and the far. They are not "land-locked pools left by the tide" but they 
move in the tide of the world. Yet they have, too, long memories, rich 
inward values, and complex and strong local loyalties. 

They are using the many technologies already referred to. Add the 
challenges and opportunities involved in tribal self-government. Add the 
terribly urgent need for land consolidation, dependent on voluntary action 
by tribes and individuals. Add the great need for health education. Think 

All is not work in the Indian CCC camps. 
Here is shown a group of Seminole Indian 
workers relaxing around the evening camp- 
fire, after a hard day's work in the 
Florida Everglades, while a story-teller 
entertains with old legends and fables. 

of the educational potentialities of the system of agricultural credit. Ck) 
beyond tribal political self-government and consider the tremendous adult- 
education yield of consumer and producer cooperatives as England, Denmark, 
Ireland and, in current years, China, have reaped that yield. Consumer and 
producer cooperatives are almost the main hope of half the Indian tribes. 
Add arts and crafts to all the above, and wild life conservation. Consider 
that Indian Service maintains a far-flung system of schools, day and board- 
ing, and hospitals, and field medical and nursing services. 

What a need and what an opportunity for adult education.* 

And much adult education there has been, and more with each year 
in these current years. 

But upon the basic proposition: that every worker in the Indian 
Service, including elementary teachers, doctors, nurses, and all agency 
personnel, has an adult-education responsibility, and every function of 
Indian Service ought to yield to an adult-education product: upon that 
basic proposition, is now being built a further proposition. Namely, that 
tEe time has come in this task to bring greater system, greater attention, 
and the most effective known or discoverable devices of adult education, 
into play. 

As part of the reorganization of the Washington Indian Office, 
now going on, a Board of Adult Education is being formed. It will have for 
its chairman the Chief of the Community Services Branch. Among the members 
of this Board will be the heads of those operating divisions which are most 
essential in adult education: the Education Division, Health Division, Ex- 
tension Division, Indian C.C.C., Planning and Development. There will be 
advisory members drawn from outside the Indian Service. Local Boards on 
Adult Education should be formed in the jurisdictions. 

That all that we do shall register in a richer, saner , more san- 
guine consciousness among Indians . and in programs more voluntary and more 
practical : that is the hope of adult education . 


Late in these recent nights, with Indian work put aside, I have 
been living in far Cathay. Did not the Indians of 15,000 years ago come 
from where the ancestors of China came from? And in Inner Mongolia would 
not the direct ancestors of the Indians now be found? 

It has been the reading - the slow reading - of a perfectly gor- 
geous book, "The Battle for Asia. " Its author, Edgar Snow, is the most dar- 
ing, the most factual and perhaps the most philosophical journalist of these 
current years in China. Reading his book, has been like watching from some 
dusky mountain-ridge the silent play of lightning far down a horizon, out 

in our West. Why do I mention China, here, and Edgar Snow's superb book? 
Because perhaps more strikingly than any other country or race, now in the 
crisis of our whole globe, China exemplifies the reconditioning of the mind, 
the grapple of the effort of democracy with final fate, the convulsion of 
world-view - the process of adult education . 

These all but countless thousands of Chinese villages are achiev- 
ing village democracy now - only now - after milleniums, in order to win 
democracy's supreme battle for themselves and for the whole world. They 
are doing this in the face of difficulties internal to China which are 
simply terrifying. If any worker in any good cause in the United States 
is discouraged by the meagerness of his means, let him read this book on 
China. There, out of such meagerness of means as none of us ever experi- 
enced, wonderful and seemingly impossible things are being done. No one 
can read Edgar Snow's book without gaining in humility, and in hope for 
the Race of Man. 


Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

Indians Indebted To Justice Van Devanter 

Of Willis Van Devanter, retired Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court, who died February 8th, the Washington Post writes: 

"The land was his first and last love, and his 
knowledge of the laws that governed it was the back- 
bone of his long public career. " 

Perhaps because land was his preoccupation, Mr. Justice Van Devan- 
ter helped make Supreme Court history for the Indians. Preeminent was his 
opinion in the Sandoval Case (231 U.S. 28) in 1913. That opinion reversed 
the Joseph Case of 1871. Through the Joseph case the Supreme Court had by 
statement and implication denied, or seemed to deny, wardship status to the 
Pueblo Indians. The Sandoval Case radically reversed the Joseph Case and 
laid the foundation for the Federal protection of the lands of these tribes, 
for the recovery of much land whose possession had been lost under the Jos- 
eph decision, and for large cash awards later paid by the Government be- 
cause of its derelictions as guardian. The Sandoval decision received am- 
plification in later Supreme Court decisions. The Indians, and the American 
record, lastingly are indebted to Mr. Justice Van Devanter. 



The wife of the interpre- 
ter at Zuni Pueblo in New 
Mexico carries her flour 
to a relative' s house to 
have it baked in one of 
the old adobe out-of-door 
ovens . 



By Ten Broeck Williamson 

If the Yisitor to the 
Pueblo Indian country takes a- 
way a "tom-tom" or Indian drum 
as a souvenir, the chances are 
that it was made at Cochiti 
Pueblo. For Cochiti supplies 
most of the drums found in 
curio stores and therefrom de- 
rives a considerable income. 

Cochiti Pueblo is 
situated on the west bank of 
the Rio Grande, about forty 
miles north of Albuquerque, New 
Mexico. Being along the river 
the Pueblo has access to a sup- 
ply of cottonwood trees, chief 
source of drum shell material, 
although aspen occasionally is 

The ideal tree trunk 
for use in making drums is one 
from a dead tree, having a 
sound exterior but a center so decayed as to make 
is sawed into the desired lengths and the shells 

hollowing easy. The trunk 
are hollowed to the proper 
thickness, which is from 
one-half to three-quar- 
ters of an inch. A leaf 
from an old automobile 
spring makes an ideal 
tool for this hollowing 
process, with one end 
sharpened like a chisel 
and with the other stuck 
into a piece of pipe for 
a handle. In the picture 
above, Lorenzo Herrera 
hollows out a tree trunk. 

Drum heads made of cow 
hide are cut slightly larger than 
the shell, are soaked in water, 
and are laced on the shell when 
still wet. The wet drum heads 
then dry taut in the sun. 

On the opposite page, 
Nestor Arquero puts his drums out 
to dry. 

When dry, the drums are 
painted. Marcello Quintana, shown 
in the picture above, finishes his 
drums with black shoe dye. The 
shells are painted in brilliant 
colors with poster paints. 

(Photographs are by the 
author, and are used through the 
courtesy of the Soil Conservation 
Service. ) 




By Claude C. Cornwall 

During the period March 29 to April 5, the Civilian Conservation 
Corps will celebrate its eighth year with appropriate ceremonies in all 
camps, including "open house" receptions to which the general public will 
be invited. Similar celebrations to mark the eighth birthday of the Indian 
Division of CCC have been planned for all Indian agencies. April 5 is gen- 
erally accepted as the official anniversary because the Executive Order es- 
tablishing the Corps was signed by President Roosevelt on that date, back 
in 1933. For CCC-ID, the comparable date is June 20, when the first trans- 
fer of funds for use by the I.E.C.W. , (Indian Emergency Conservation Work) 
was officially made. 

The initiation of the Emergency Conservation program came at a 
time of great national stress due to economic disarrangement and widespread 
unemployment. In his inaugural address in 1933, the President said: 

"Our greatest primary task is to put people to 
work. This is no unsolvable problem if we face it wise- 
ly and courageously. 

"It can be accomplished in part by direct recruit- 
ing by the Government itself, treating the task as we 
would treat the emergency of war, but at the same time, 
through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed 
projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our na- 
tural resources. " 

President Outlines Plan 

On March 21, the President sent a message to Congress outlining 
his plan for Emergency Conservation Work, and on March 27, the measure 
to create a corps of civilian workers was being debated in the Senate. Dur- 
ing this debate a question was asked concerning the language of the bill: 
"Do the words, 'Government Reservations', include Indian reservations?" 
This was the first mention of Indians in connection with the Emergency 
Conservation Work. The answer was, "Yes." It was an eagerly awaited 
answer at the Indian Office. It came at a time when economic conditions 
and personal morale were in a most precarious condition on Indian reser- 
vations. Work was badly needed. 

Preparations were set in motion at once for participation of In- 
dians in the program. Selection of conservation projects which were nec- 
essary to be done was not a difficult matter. For years the Indian Office 
had urged larger appropriations for needed improvements to protect the for- 


est stands and range lands; for truck trails, lookout towers, water develop- 
ments, boundary fences. From the outset Commissioner Collier vigorously 
supported the project. On April 20 a letter was sent through Secretary 
Ickes to the President outlining these projects, and on April 2U, a second 
letter was similarly sent, asking that Indians be enrolled to carry out 
this work; that they be permitted to set up their own camps, that age and 
marital status limitations be waived, and that the Indian Service super- 
vise the operation of the programs. These recommendations received ap- 
proval on May 1, from the newly-appointed Director, Mr. Robert Fechner, and 
the I.E.C.W. was officially begun. 

In the first six months of I.E.C.W., nearly 14,000 Indians 
beneficiaries of this needed work opportunity. 


Family Camps 

The family camps 
advocated by Commissioner 
Collier proved to be an in- 
teresting development in the 
early days of the I.E.C.W. 
Men, women and children were 
assembled together in the 
first work camps. These be- 
came little villages with a 
camp manager who was ap- 
pointed to provide the nec- 
essary sanitation structures 
and essential camp needs. 
While the men worked on con- 
servation projects, the ir 
wives living in the camps 
prepared the food and took 
care of the children so that 
normal family life was not 

When the Civilian 
Conservation Corps was offi- 
cially established on July 
1, 1937, I.E.C.W. became 
CCC-ID. This organization 

Navajo CCC Workors 
Build A Spillway For A 
Dam At Tho Dry Basin 
Of Rod Lako. 


which began as a "temporary measure of six months duration" now enters its 
ninth year. More than 70,000 individual Indians have been enrolled." For 
most of the young men this was their first job opportunity, their'first 
chance at a real project. For others, who had been employed in industrial 
occupations but who had been forced to leave their jobs and return to the 
reservations because of the depression, this was a chance to feel again the 
satisfaction of exercising their skills at hand tools or machinery. These 
Indians were among the first leaders in I.E.C.W. 

Indian Leadership Developed 

For the young men, CCC-ID work has been fascinating. Such proj- 
ects as developing a clear running spring from a miry bog, blasting a truck 
trail around a rocky ledge, spotting a beetle-infested tree, bracing the 
corners of a strong fence, holding a powerful jackhammer, driving a truck 
operating a tractor, have constituted a developing experience for thousands 
of Indian youth. The present leadership of CCC-ID includes hundreds of In- 
dians who have come up from the ranks - who began as enrollees. 

As these skills and abilities have grown, so have the mileages of 
completed structures. More than 8,000 miles of truck trails have been 
completed; nearly 11,000 miles of fences have been, built; Indian enrollees 
have added to the water supply of ranges through the development of 7 000 
springs, 1,670 wells, and 1,^62 impounding dams and large reservoirs; range 
lands have been improved through elimination ef 307,257 head of useless 
stock, constructing 71,700 erosion control water-spreading structures, 680 
miles of stock trails, and 2,500 miljs of horse and man trails; Indian for- 
est lands have, in addition to improved transportation facilities and fire 
hazard reduction, been given added protection through construction of 53 
houses for fire guards, erection of 85 lookout towers, building of 6,800 
miles of telephone lines, and cutting 3,000 miles of firebreaks. More than 
250 crews of trained enrollees are on call at any hour of the day or night 
for the suppression of forest fires. Last year advance fire fighting in- 
structions were given to 4-, 977 Indian enrollees. 

Indians Earn As They Learn 

Vocational training, including work experience and related in- 
struction, has been given in more than 100 different occupational subjects. 
The CCC has the unique opportunity of providing training in actual jobs on 
a production level, thus equipping the enrollees with knowledge and skills 
comparable to commercial construction practices. Related instruction has 
served to broaden the viewpoint of enrollees and give them an understanding 
of the background principles of their acquired jab skills. For example, 
the intensive training in telephone and radio was accompanied with in- 
struction in elementary electricity and mechanics; training in fire fight- 
ing included instruction in the principles of forest conservation; train- 
ing in surveying included elementary mathematics and other related subjects; 
training in concrete construction included instruction in the processes in- 
volved in concrete contracting. 


Through the CCC safety program, accident costs in CCC-ID, includ- 
ing property damage, have decreased 4-6 per cent. Safety meetings are held 
each week on all job locations, and careful inspections are continually 
made to insure safe working conditions for all personnel, at project lo- 
cations, in shops and camps. 

Enrollees have been instructed to work skillfully and safely. 
They appreciate that safety is not a matter of luck. They have learned 
that an alert, well-informed enrollee, operating equipment which is in good 
order, or working under approved safe conditions, acquires safe habits. 
He doesn't get hurt; accidents do not "happen" to him. 

Contributes To National Defense 

Conservation work performed by CCC-ID enrollees on Indian res- 
ervations, and other lands, is of as vital importance to the nation as it 
is to the Indians whose homes and way of life are found on the national 
reserves. Indian lands occupy a considerable portion of the watersheds 
and timber stands important to irrigation and the agricultural life of the 
arid West. Projects to conserve these resources have been skillfully com- 
pleted by Indian enrollees in the CCC-ID organization during the past eight 

GCC-ID Workers Repair A Tolopoono At Too Radio and Tolaphoao School, Caomawa, Oregon 


CQC-ID is only one part of the great nation-wide activity, a pro- 
gram of work and training, of service to community and country; a combined 
program of human and land conservation going forward hand in hand. 

The application of this program to the nation's defense is at 
once obvious.. America's defense supplies are to be found in its trained 
man power and in its developed natural resources. Hundreds of Indian CCC 
enrollees have already volunteered or have been called to the colors. The 
practical value of their experience and training in CCC-ID has already 
been recognized from the progress made by individual Indians in produc- 
tive employment both on and off the reservations, and this development will 
be more appreciated as time goes on. 

And so with this determination to serve as best we can, the CCC- 
ID organization enters its ninth year. 

Summer School Course On Modern Indian 
To Be Continued By University of Oklahoma 

A course on The Problems of the Modern American Indian will he 
presented this summer at the summer school of the University of Oklahoma. 
The course will be conducted this year by Dr. Gordon Macgregor, anthropol- 
ogist in the Education Division of the Office of Indian Affairs. This study, 
begun in 194-0 under the University's Department of Anthropology, will con- 
sider the position of contemporary Indian groups in the United States, popu- 
lation changes, racial composition, degree of assimilation, problems of so- 
cial disorganization and adjustment, and the policies and effects of Govern- 
ment administration. 

This year the course will be open to those of junior standing and 
will not require previous preparation in anthropology. A discussion group 
on the Problems of the Modern Indian will also be conducted by Dr. Macgregor 
for advanced students and those who have had experience in Indian adminis- 

A course in social anthropology for students of junior or higher 
standing will also be given. This will examine the culture and social or- 
ganization of modern communities and of primitive peoples of the world. 

Many Navajo Indians, having heard much about the war, thought the 
call for registration was a call to fight for their country. After 
bidding their families a fond farewell, they came to headquarters 
on horseback and equipped for immediate military service with 
food, packs, and sometimes guns, as shown above. The field radio 
transmitter was used to report registration progress to the Navajo 
Agency at Window Rock, Arizona. 



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W7/ e 



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3r s 0n 







^'^do Ry 



The map was prepared 


bo v a y, indian ccc 
Safety Division. 
Sam Attahvich, Co- 
manche, DID THE 

WOA/7 4 


Ft. Totten, 




Wind Ri V e r 

A'ntah a 




Ut e 

Un ' t SS Jeb,os 


N£ W MEX,co 


■ Standing Rnri, 
^ Cheyenne River 

Crow C el 

Pine Ridge 



_Cheyenne 8 A p 



i/Red Lake 


.„ e* c 




^ vliSCOHSINj 














F ^ve VTribes 









CAROL* • -j^j 

On the map is shown 
the Percentage of accidents 
Among Indian CCC workers, ac- 
cording to days worked. with 
The Increase in frequency of 
accidents, the circle increases in 


The following 33 agencies, with a 
total of 29,574 man-days worked, re- 
ported not even a minor injury: 

Choctaw, Hiss.; New York, N. Y.j 

Seminole, Fla.; Sac i, Fox, Iowa; Flan- 

dreau, Pierre, Sisseton, all in S.D.; 

Ft. Berthold and Turtle Mt., in n.d.j 

Crow, Ft. Eelknap, Rocky Boy's, all 

in Montana; Klamath, Chemawa, Grand 

Ronde-Siletz, all in Ore.; Northern 

Idaho, Idaho; Tulalip, wn.; hoopa 

valley and sacrewanto, calif.; 

Western Shoshone, nev.; Ft. 

Apache, Phoenix School, Pima, s*n 

Carlos, Sells, hcpi,all in Ari.; 


occo School, Osage, Pawnee, Pota— 




C °im^ 












---^^ I 

" f Ho« 

"rA H 

c io, 



"1 c, 

: on 0r , 


The map *ag prepared 
by mi36uarvb. 

Bovay, Indian CCC 
Safety Division. 




" v " Tongue 



Wind River 

Union , 





Ft. Tolte 
Standing Rn^i, 

Red Lake 

Cheyenne River 


Crow Creek 





Cheyenne 6t Aropoho 




Five Vl 






the percentage of accioents 
Among Indian CCC workers, ac- 

The increase in frequency of 






Surprisingly large percentages of Indians are volunteering in 
defense of their country and many others are being trained in civilian 
skills of potential military value, according to field reports received 
by the Office of Indian Affairs. Indians are exhibiting some remarkable 
mechanical and technical skills, these reports reveal. 

Although the formation of special training battalions for non- 
English-speaking eligibles has been deferred, leaving a large segment of 
the Indian population without the opportunity of enlistment, figures from 
26 out of a total of 80 Indian jurisdictions scattered throughout the coun- 
try attest to the Indian's patriotism. 

Montana Reservation Holds Record 

On the basis of these figures, the Fort Peck Sioux-Assiniboine 
Reservation in northern Montana seems to hold an all-time record. Almost 
one-half of the number eligible for selective service have already volun- 
teered in the armed forces of the nation. Of the 252 Fort Peck Indians 
registered for selective service, 113 have volunteered for Army service, 
including five Indians who were employed on the staff of the Fort Peck In- 
dian Agency. 

According to reports from 26 agencies, the number of Indians who 
have volunteered is about 15 times greater than the number inducted through 
the draft. 

State Figures Are Listed 

By March 1, 98 young braves had left the Consolidated Chippewa 
Agency in Minnesota, to join the Army; 60 had enlisted from the peaceful 
tribe of the long-haired Pima in Arizona; 55 Sioux had left the Rosebud 
Reservation in South Dakota, including 23 Indians employed on the staff of 
the Rosebud Agency; and 28 out of a possible 262 eligible for selective 
service had enlisted from the North Carolina Eastern Qherokee Reservation. 

In addition to the above, reports came from the following agen- 
cies: Blackfeet Indian Agency, Montana; Colorado River Agency, Arizona; 
Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas; Keshena Agency, Wisconsin; Kiowa Agen- 
cy, Anadarko, Oklahoma; Mescalero Agency, New Mexico; Mission Agency, River- 
side^ California; Osage Agency, Pawhuska, Oklahoma; Red Lake Agency, Min- 
nesota; Rocky Boy's Agency, Montana; Sequoyah Training School, Tahlequah, 
Oklahoma; Shawnee Agency, Oklahoma; Sherman Institute, Riverside, Califor- 
nia; Sisseton Agency, South Dakota; Taholah Agency, Hoquissa, Washington; 
Tongue River Agency, Lame Deer, Montana; Truxton Canon Agency, Valentine, 
Arizona; Turtle Mountain Agency, Belcourt, North Dakota; Western Shoshone 


Agency, Owyhee, Nevada; Winnebago Agency, Nebraska; Yakima Agency, Toppen- 
ish, Washington. 

The number of Indians registered for selective service at these 
26 agencies is 7,407; 574 have volunteered for military service and 37 have 
been inducted. Hundreds of additional Indians who have volunteered or who 
are in National Guard units in different parts of the country, particularly 
Oklahoma, which has the largest Indian population, are not included in the 
above figures. For example, many Oklahoma Indians are in the 180th In- 
fantry of the Army, which has for its motto a phrase from the Choctaw lan- 
guage, "Tanap manaiya kia alhtaiyaha", which translated freely means, 
"Ready, in Peace or War. " 

The Army reports that in addition to the hundreds of Indians 
mobilized in National Guard units and the small number of Indian selectees, 
670 Indians were enlisted in the regular Army throughout the country dur- 
ing the six months from July 1, 1940 to January 1, 1941. 

Ancestors Were In Custer Battle 

The Sioux who left the Fort Peck Reservation to join the U. S. 
Army are descendants of the band led by Chief Gall, one of the leaders in 
the Battle of the Little Big Horn, which resulted in defeat and annihilation 
of General George J. Custer's Seventh U. S. Cavalry. 

Many of the Indian CCC camps were greatly depleted when word of 
Uncle Sam's defense needs began to spread through Indian country. The 
skills Indians have acquired through the Civilian Conservation Corps are 
being utilized by both the military forces in defense training and the ci- 
vilian forces in the construction of defense projects. Particularly is 
the CCC Indian's ability to handle a truck through rough and timber coun- 
try considered an asset in Army camps. The CCC Indian men are thoroughly 
schooled in the rules of safety and from their past training demonstrate 
a keen sense of responsibility in the hauling of men or materials. 

Klamaths Vote Defense Contribution 

An example of Indian patriotism, probably unparalleled in white 
communities, comes from the Klamath Tribe in Oregon, which won a judgment 
against the United States in 1938 for past wrongs perpetrated on the tribe. 
The Klamath General Council voted to donate $150,000 to the Government on 
the condition that it establish a defense training school at the Klamath 
Agency, Klamath Falls, Oregon. The training school as planned by -the Coun- 
cil would be under direct supervision of Army officials and would train 
young Indians in aviation and forest fire control, with particular em- 
phasis on training connected with national defense. The Klamath Indians 
are especially interested in having Army officials construct an airport 
and provide training planes for young Indians. Withdrawal of the money 
from the tribal fund requires the approval of the Congress. 

Indians are volunteering in the armed forces of the United States 
in increasing numbers. Jesse MeNevins, Cherokee; Corporal Tommy 
Hattensty, Choctaw; and Sergeant Douglas Burris, Chickasaw, mem- 
bers of Company H, 179th Infantry, Oklahoma National Guard, were 
among the representatives of twenty-eight Indian tribes found 
among the troops assembled for Third Army Maneuvers in Louisiana. 




By Rosella Senders 

There was a time, and not so long ago, when a discussion of the 
future of the American Indian might have begun and ended with the words 
"he hasn't any." The Indian had a past - quite an interesting one - and 
a poor sort of present, but his future was considered to be something that 
he would probably not live to see. Indians of the United States languished 
on reservation land, or crowded in unsightly and unwholesome shack settle- 
ments at the edges of towns and cities. Anthropologists and sociologists 
said they were a doomed race, and Government administration of the 19th 
century strengthened this belief. 

Only as recently as the 1920' s, Government policy began to be 
liberalized, to be planned for the Indian instead of for the white man. 
Now the future that "didn't exist" is interesting enough to bring scien- 
tists and administrators together from all over the country to make diag- 
noses and prognostications. 

Indian Population Growing Rapidly 

Indian population is expanding so rapidly that some population 
experts predict that its present figure - 361,000 - will be doubled by 
1980. In a country that has no geographical frontiers left, an expanding 
minority gives rise to social and economic problems that call for planned 
action. Realizing, along with other leaders of thought, that the so-called 
vanishing American is reappearing with startling speed, Oliver La Farge, 
President of the American Association on Indian Affairs, decided that the 
time had come to look ahead. With the cooperation of the Office of Indian 
Affairs and the Museum of Modern Art, he planned a four-day Institute on the 
future of the American Indian, and invited scientists, administrators, In- 
dians, and laymen to take part in discussions of the major objectives of 
present-day Indian administration. The meetings were held the week of 
March 3rd in the Museum in New York City, where the current exhibition of 
Indian art of the United States offered proof of the Indian's vitality in 
at least one respect. 

The principal speakers at the opening meeting were Indian Com- 
missioner John Collier and Mr. La Farge. Leaving the details of the fu- 
ture to the special discussions which were to follow, they spoke in gen- 
eral of the Indian's vitality, of his spiritual resources, of the great 
tradition of "local democracy" which no amount of adversity has ever smoth- 
ered. Indian administration has become increasingly scientific in recent 
years, and Indians are more and more eager to take advantage of the cul- 
tural and social opportunities which are offered them. 

Indian Me*** On Exhibit At kt*fo» Of kfo&rn Art 

The Indians who were present at the meetings did not look like 
members of a dying race. Representatives of several tribes took active 
part in the smaller discussion groups and had much to contribute. At the 
opening and closing sessions, eight Tewa Indians from Tesuque Pueblo in New 
Mexico performed the Eagle Dance, Buffalo Dance, and Snow Bird Dance in 
authentic costume and make-up. Their leader, the Governor of Tesuque Pueblo, 
acknowledging the applause which followed the dances, was friendly and 

In the numerous group discussions, all the questions raised about 
the future could not be finally answered during this four-day meeting, nor 
can they be answered this year or next. But the discussions were thought- 
provoking and should eventually bear fruit - particularly if the Institute 
becomes an annual event. 

More Indians Require More Land 

Indian lands present an immediate problem. More Indians mean 
more land and better use of presently owned land. After reviewing the trag- 
ic history of Indian lands under the allotment system, specialists agreed 
that an increase in the land base is urgently needed and that the leasing 
system must be abolished. Indian lands must be used by Indians. Much has 
already been accomplished under the Indian Bureau's conservation policy. 
Erosion is checked by the control of grazing exercised by livestock associ- 
tions on the reservations; tribal funds and Indian Office revolving credit 
funds (with excellent repayment records on the latter) are being used in- 
creasingly for land purchases; competent technical services have been made 


available. Papers on this subject were read by Dr. Ralph Linton, Director 
of Anthropology at Columbia University, and by Ward Shepard, Walter V. 
Woe hike, and Allan Harper of the Indian Office. 

The old policy of forced assimilation into white culture has given 
way, according to Willard W. Beatty, Director of Indian Education, to train- 
ing directed toward a better reservation economy and a gradual adjustment, 
through reservation life, to the life of the country at large. Dr. Gordon 
Macgregor, anthropologist in the Education Division, reported that surveys 
of the graduates of industrial training schools show only one-third em- 
ployed in the fields for which they were trained, and most of these are 
in temporary Government service. The majority of this school group have 
returned to the reservations, where there is little or no opportunity for 
using industrial training. Today agricultural training for boys is receiv- 
ing new emphasis in Indian schools, and Indian girls are given home eco- 
nomics training which is adapted to reservation conditions. Learning for 
use is the trend of all modern education, and Indian schools are in the 

New Written Language For Indians 

Dr. Edward Kennard of the Education Division told of progress 
in developing and teaching written native languages to the Navajo and the 
Sioux. Adults absorb the new technique with surprising rapidity, and their 
greater language facility makes possible a more accurate transmission of 
new ideas - vitally important, for example, to the success of a soil con- 
servation program. He indicated that children who have learned written 
Navajo learn English more easily. 

Dr. Beatty outlined his hopes for establishing a school to develop 
Indian leadership - a two-year course of junior college grade. Selected 
students would study problems of racial and cultural differences and gain 
a thorough command of English under a carefully chosen faculty, and would 
then complete their college work in different universities. These young 
Indians would have a foundation for assuming constructive leadership in 
later life. 

Discussions of the place of Indian religion in the modern world 
touched upon the values that Indian religion might have for whites, with 
its dynamic philosophy of love of the land and of natural resources. Pa- 
pers on Indian religion were read by Dr. William Duncan Strong and Dr. Ruth 
Bunzel of Columbia University, and Mrs. Alice Corbin Henderson, who has 
spent most of her life in the Pueblo country. 

What Is An Indian? 

Both Dr. Frank Lorimer, Director of Population Studies at Ameri- 
can University in Washington, and Dr. Harry Shapiro, Assistant Curator of 
the American Museum of Natural History, felt that the expanding Indian min- 
ority is first of all an economic problem, with reservation lands increas- 


ingly inadequate. They stressed the difficulty of defining a racial In- 
dian. Dr. Shapiro said that the Indians themselves judge a person's In- 
dian-ness by "blood, residence and recognition", and warned that care must 
be taken that Indian privileges are enjoyed only by those really entitled 
to them. Dr. James G. Townsend, until recently Director of the Govern- 
ment's Indian health program, summarized that program, which has been an 
important part of the resurgence of Indian life. 

In the Museum setting, no one could doubt the brightness of the 
future of Indian arts and crafts in spite of the temporary effects of the 
tourist trade which were described by Rene d'Harnoncourt, General Manager 
of the Arts and Crafts Board. Mr. d'Harnoncourt presented this picture: 
When the Indians made moccasins to be worn and blankets for the purpose of 
keeping warm, quality was all-important, because the article.s had to fill 
a practical need; but a traveler seeking souvenirs of his trip is not so 
much interested in quality. A conflict arises between the skilled produc- 
er, who wants to be proud of his work as well as to make a living out of 
it, and the buyer, who wants to get out of it as cheaply as possible. The 
demand for quantity rather than quality brought about careless workmanship. 
The net result was that the Indian lost faith in the white man's taste. The 
Arts and Crafts Board has tried, with outstanding success, both to educate 
the buying public and to restore the Indian's confidence in it. Mr. d'Harn- 
oncourt believes the American Indians are the outstanding, if not the only, 
producing group in the country who still have a feeling for tools, for ma- 
terials, and for traditional design. He indicated, therefore, that if there 
is to be a general revival of arts and crafts, Indian arts and crafts should 
lead the movement. 

The last session of the week was a meeting for children from 
New York private schools - future citizens who will share the Indian's fu- 
ture. In the worst snowstorm of the year, scores of children poured into 
the Museum to see moving pictures of Indian life on the reservations and 
real Indians doing ceremonial dances. Perhaps these future Americans will 
have a better understanding of Indian life as a result of even this brief 
and pleasant contact with Indians. 

(Many of the papers presented will be printed in 
"Indians At Work" in coming months. The Editor.) 

Indian Service Extension Worker Dies 

Word has just been received of the untimely death on March 21 
of Miss Elizabeth Hart, Home Extension Agent for the Pima Jurisdiction 
in Arizona, who for many years gave invaluable service to the Extension 

William Crowe, one of the twenty- 
eight Eastern Cherokees who re- 
cently enlisted in the aimed 
forces of the United States. Be- 
fore enlisting, he made his liv- 
ing on the reservation in wood- 
work, specializing in making bows 
and arrows. His father, Ute 
Crowe, was with the 31st Division 
in the World War, and was decor- 
ated for heroism by saving the 
life of a captain while under 
heavy fire in No Man's Land. 


Indians In the News 

Eleven Indian agencies in Wyoming and neighboring states will share in the 
disposal of 175 YellowstQne National Park buffaloes. The Indians will use the animals 
for meat and hides. Agencies designated by Park officials to receive shipments in- 
clude the Wind River in Wyoming; Fort Belknap, Crow, Blackf eet and Tongue River in 
Montana; Fort Hall in Idaho; Fort Berthold and Standing Rock in North Dakota; and Rose- 
bud, Pine Ridge and Cheyenne in South Dakota. Cheyenne , Wyoming . The Tribune . 2/22/^1 . 

Resplendent in ceremonial dress, a Chippewa Indian caught the fancy of of- 
ficers and men when he appeared recently at headquarters "to give my son to white 
man's Array." Chief Little Cloud to his tribe and Charles W. Burnell to his pale-face 
friends at Ball Club, Minnesota, the 70-year-old Indian presented a dramatic picture 
as he entered the "wigwam" of the Great White Father to bid farewell to "Little Samson". 
his eldest son, who will be known in the Army as Private John Burnell. Both father and 
son are proud to be of service to Uncle Sam. The father seemed pleased for several 
reasons. "It's about time he gets out into the world to see what it is made of," he 
said. "He should come back big and strong." Duluth . Minnesota . The News -Tribune . 
2/23/U . 

Young Indian men and women from widely scattered reservations in Oregon, Wa- 
shington, Montana, Wyoming, Utah and Idaho assembled at Chemawa for the first rural 
life and Indian youth conference in the history of the region. Paul T. Jackson, Su- 
perintendent of the Chemawa Indian School, was in charge of the meeting. United States 
Indian Service and State U- H Club officials led discussions on training in agriculture, 
home and farm mechanics and homemaking. Formation of a Service-wide organization sim- 
ilar to the Future Farmers of America was considered. Portland , Oregon. The Oregon 
Journal . 2/17/U . 

A new reservation for the Temoak Bands of the Western Shoshone Indians has 
been established in Nevada by order of Under Secretary of the Interior A. J. Wirtz, act- 
ing on the recommendation of the Indian Bureau. 9,548 acres of land in Elko County 
have been set aside. The order stated that pending adoption of a land-use code by the 
Indians, use of the lands was to be subject to rules to be prescribed by the Secretary 
of the Interior for the protection of the soil and its proper utilization and develop- 
ment. Salt Lake City. Utah . The Desert News . 2/28/4-1. 

Chiefs, leaders and members from 22 Oklahoma tribes were delegates to a re- 
cent State inter-tribal council. Resolutions for the passage of a law by Congress set- 
ting up a special Indian claims commission were scheduled for discussion. Scattered 
among those attending were men and women whose names have been known in Oklahoma State 
Indian affairs for many, many years - W. A. Durant, Floyd Maytubby, Albert Noon, Ben 
Dwight, Roley Canard and several others. Oklahoma City. Oklahoma . The Oklahoman . 3/1/41- 

On March 15 the Stearman Division of the Boeing Airplane Company was sched- 
uled to turn over to the United States Army the 1,000th plane and to the United States 
Navy the 1,001st craft which the Wichita plant has built in the national defense effort. 
High Array and Navy officials participated in the ceremony. Included in the several 
thousand employees now on the Stearman payroll are 25 or 30 Indians from Oklahoma and 
other southwestern states. "They will have a special place on the program, as the ef- 
forts of the original American citizens in building airplanes during the national crisis 
is decidedly unusual. " Kansas City . Kansas . The Kansas City Star . 3/12/41 . 

A permanent organization of "Fort Peck United Projects" has been completed by 
twenty communities between Great Falls and Williston, Montana. James L. Long of Oswego, 


a Fort Peck Reservation allottee, is a member of the executive committee of this newly 
formed association. The purpose of the organization is to obtain recognition by the 
Federal Government of facilities at the gigantic Fort Peck Dam for use in the national 
defense program. Development of irrigation and power facilities through use of water 
behind the Dam will be urged along with the use of the living facilities at the site as 
a training center for the Army. Great Falls, Montana . The Tribune . 2/20/4.1 . 

Ben F. Mitchell, Secretary of the Klamath Indian Tribe, died March 10 from 
injuries received in a fall. As secretary of the council and chairman of the tribal 
loan board, Mitchell was regarded as the leader of the Klamath Tribe. The Associated 
Press . 3/11/4.1 . 

Critics have had plenty to say about the treatment of the American Ind ian by 
the white invaders and conquerors of this continent. Lately, it is admitted, a more 
enlightened policy has been in operation, and the Indian population has begun slowly 
to attain a self-supporting and self-respecting position in American life. 

Even so, it will come as a surprise to find that anyone is studying this Gov- 
ernment's Indian policy with a view to using it to improve the lot of another group of 
people. King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia has sent a representative to study our methods 
and see whether they may be applied to the solution of his country's Bedouin problem. 

The representative is to study particularly the conservation of land and wa- 
ter resources and preservation and development of native arts and crafts as a source 
of income. At present, the chief source of income of the Bedouins is the cash spent by 
pilgrims who pass through the country on their way to Mecca. Minot . North Dakota . The 
News ( Editorial ). 3/11/41 . 

Navajo Tag-Of-War At A CCC Anitivartary Ct/tbrotion 





Yakima (Washington) Indians Help To Save Lives 

That CCC-ID trains Indians to meet emergencies was dramatically- 
revealed a few months ago at the Yakima Indian Reservation when quick as- 
sistance was given to the victims of a disastrous gas explosion at Toppen- 
ish. The violent explosion shattered windows eight blocks distant; killed 
seven persons, injured fourteen others, and destroyed a large warehouse and 
several stores. The Mayor of Toppenish requested help from the Yakima CCC- 
ID organization. Every available man was rushed to the scene by truck. 
Because of the fire resulting from the explosion fast work was needed to 
save those who were trapped but still alive. The Indian CCC workers from 
Yakima completely measured up to the emergency. City officials of Toppen- 
ish have expressed the highest praise "for the efficient and effective man- 
ner in which these men worked against time to do all that was humanly pos- 
sible to save human lives during this terrific calamity. " 

Learning The Mysteries Of The Telephone, Radio And Telephone School, Chemawa, Oregon 

Wisconsin Reservation Stages Unusual Ceremony 

J. C. Cavill, Superintendent of the Great Lakes Indian Agency, 
Wisconsin, submits the following excerpts from an article in "Northern 
Light", monthly publication of Northland College in Ashland: 

"President Brownell reports an interesting and gratifying 
experience last summer at the Indian village of Odanah, ten miles 
east of Ashland. Under the direction of the Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps - Indian Division, of the Great Lakes Indian Agency, 
courses of study covering 8 grades of grammar school have been 
conducted during the winter. Twenty-six Indian men, under the 
direction of Eric Enblom of the CCC staff at Great Lakes Agen- 
cy, completed the course, took the state examinations and were 
qualified for 8th grade diplomas. President Brownell was in- 
vited to give the commencement address and present the certifi- 

The graduates were all Indian men ranging in age from 19 to 65. 
As each one was called to the platform, President Brownell presented him 
with the diploma and a word of congratulation. The intense interest, the 
eagerness and pride in their eyes, indicated how much this simple recogni- 
tion meant to these "real Americans." 

President Brownell remarked afterward that he had given many more 
advanced degrees to successful candidates, but never had he felt a thrill 
comparable with his participation in this unique ceremony. He said, "North- 
land wishes to commend and congratulate the Indian Service upon this unique 
accomplishment under heavy handicaps." 

Eight Oklahoma Indian Workers Get Good Jobs 

One of the many specific examples of the value of the training 
program of the CCC-ID presents itself in Oklahoma. Eight former CCC-ID 
workers are now gainfully employed in jobs which pay not less than $125 
a month. These young men were all trained in engineering and construc- 
tion activities of the CCC-ID at the Fjve Civilized Tribes Agency, Mus- 
kogee, Oklahoma. Their names and their present connections are given here: 

James Brown, Choctaw - Engineer Draftsman, U. S. Indian Roads Divi- 

sion, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 

Robert Cochran, Cherokee - Sub-surveyman, U. S. Engineering Division, 

Arkansas River Flood Control, Wagoner, Oklahoma. 

Ross Crittenden, Cherokee - Instrumentman, U. S. Engineering Division, 

Lawton, Oklahoma. 

Cullen Jones, Cherokee - Chairman, Oklahoma State Highway Department, 

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 

Hillis Mayes, Cherokee - Sub-surveyman, U. S. Engineering Division, 

Arkansas River Flood Control, Webber Falls, 
- Oklahoma. 


Ewing E. Markham, Cherokee - County Engineer, Adair County, Oklahoma. 

Tom McPherson, Cherokee - Field Engineer, Continental Oil Company, Ponca 

City, Oklahoma. 
Kenneth Scott, Cherokee - Engineer Draftsman, U. S. Engineering Division, 

Muskogee, Oklahoma. 

Accomplishments Of CCC-ID In New York State 

Under the supervision of the New York Indian Agency at Buffalo, 
conservation work has been undertaken on six reservations in the State of 
New York. An average of 60 Indian enrollees is employed in this work of 
improving reservation lands of each of the Six Nations - Senecas, Tuscar- 
oras, Mohawks, Onondagas, Oneidas and Cayugas. 

Work on the Allegany Reservation consists of truck trails, forest 
stand improvement and channel control on the Bay State Creek. All material, 
dead trees, and so forth, removed by the enrollees in forest stand improve- 
ment is made available to the Indians for fire wood. 

Florida $* mi no its Build A Community Show or Building 

'ml HUM i H 


At the Cattaraugus Reservation, tbe building of truck trails has 
been a major project. A fire break is being constructed along the boundary 
lines of the reservation. 

On the Tuscarora Reservation, a drainage project has been com- 
pleted which will make available a large area of previously water-logged 
farm land and also eliminates a potent breeding ground for mosquitoes. A 
timber type map of the Tuscarora Reservation has been completed. 

At the Tonawanda Reservation an extensive program of spring de- 
velopment has been carried out, also a program of forest stand improvement, 
clearing out dead and dying trees, and making them available for use by the 
Indians, deepening the channel on the Tonawanda Creek for flood control and 
improvement of truck trails. 

On the Onondaga Reservation, projects similar to those on the oth- 
er reservations are being carried out, and in addition these Indians have 
renovated and landscaped the Indian village at the New York State Fair 

At the St. Regis Reservation, a forest tree nursery has been es- 
tablished and planted by the enrollees. In connection with this project, 
there is an interesting development. The Fish and Wildlife Service is con- 
structing a storage reservoir as a part of the Montezuma Migratory Bird 
Refuge. This necessitated the clearing of approximately 500 acres of tim- 
ber. A survey of this timber indicated that from 15 to 25 per cent of the 
trees which were to be removed consisted of black ash. When the Indians 
heard of this, they were very much interested because black ash splints 
are used in the making of utility baskets. 

With the approval of Superintendent C. H. Berry, Senior Foreman 
George A. MacPherson made arrangements with the Wildlife Service to permit 
the Indians to take the selected black ash logs. The first suggestion was 
that these logs might be transported to the Indian Reservations, but the 
Indians had a better idea. They suggested that inasmuch as the bark and 
center core of the trees would not be used in making splints and that only 
selected logs would provide perfect splint material, it would be more eco- 
nomical to assign expert _ Indian splint makers from ^he St. Regis and other 
reservations to go to the Montezuma Refuge and salvage this material. Ar- 
rangements were made to billet the men in the CCC camp, and thus the bas- 
ket-making industry of the New York Indians has been supplied with a great 
quantity of perfect black ash splints which would otherwise have been wasted 
or used for fire wood. 



Authority of the Secretary of the Interior to regulate the use of reserva- 
tion range; to protect the land from waste and unfair monopolization by individual 
Indians was again upheld by The Honorable Tillman D. Johnson, judge in the U. S. Dis- 
trict Court. 

By oral decision of the U. S. District Court rendered at Salt Lake City, 
February 14, 194-1, in and for the District of Utah, the court in effect upheld an 
earlier unreported decision by the U. S. District Court at Phoenix, Arizona, (IT. S. vs. 
Bega) which established the authority of the Secretary to so regulate the use of the 
Navajo range in Arizona. The substance of the Utah Court decision follows: 

THE COURT: With the continued and continuing increase in the number of the 
Navajo Tribe and the limited area of the reservation, and the consequent limited graz- 
ing capacity of the reservation, it is evident that the existing conditions there 
challenge the farsightedness and statesmanship of every responsible agent of the Gov- 
ernment charged with the duty of maintaining and promoting the well-being of these In- 

There are two alternatives, with a possible third, if future disaster is to 
be avoided, either the continued enlargement of the grazing area of the reservation, 
or the development of the agricultural resources of the reservation, or both. A third 
alternative is the possible receipt of royalties from the development of the mineral 
and oil resources of the reservation, if any such exist. 

Of course there is always this alternative: any Indian on the reservation 
who owns livestock in excess of the number allowed by the regulations may remove this 
excess stock from the reservation and own and maintain them in competition with his 
white neighbors. 

I have permitted you Navajo witnesses who have testified in these cases to 
freely express your views and detail your grievances, in order that I may better un- 
derstand the situation, but not for the purpose of formulating a policy for the Gov- 
ernment agencies who are charged with that duty. I have no such power. 

It is conceded by your counsel that the Act of Congress authorizing the 
Secretary of the Interior to establish regulations is valid, and that the regulations 
established pursuant thereto are valid and within the authority delegated by Congress 
to the Secretary of the Interior. The manner and time of the enforcement of these 
regulations, or any one or more of the regulations, are administrative questions with- 
in the fair discretion of the Secretary of the Interior and his agents acting under 

The program now being enforced by the Secretary, and sought to be enforced 
against the defendants in these four suits, is clearly within the authority of the 
Secretary of the Interior and his agents. This court is without authority to modify 
or change the regulations, or to stay their enforcement. These matters are all ex- 
ecutive and administrative, and are not subject to judicial review. The only function 
of this court in these cases is to prevent interference with the carrying out of the 
program outlined in the regulations. 

The Tribal Council has approved by resolution the regulations requiring re- 
duction in the livestock of the defendants and others similarly situated. The members 

of the Council were elected by a majority of the adult members of the tribe residing 
on the reservation. This Council represents the Navajo people. Its voice is the voice 
of the Navajo people. The defendants, and others similarly situated, should hear that 
voice and cheerfully obey it. This is the democratic way of life in this country. 

I shall be very sorry if any Navajo hereafter shall interfere with the agents 
of the Government in carrying out these regulations. 

If these defendants, or any one of them, shall hereafter interfere with the 
agents in carrying out the provisions of the regulations, it will be my duty to send 
for him and bring him to Salt Lake City and keep him here in jail until the work of 
the agents has been completed. You do not want that to occur. It will be your duty 
and privilege to be present with these agents and Join in the selection of the stock 
to be removed from the reservation, and to select that stock which you are authorized 
to keep on the reservation. 

The Secretary of the Interior and his agents are your friends and are anxious 
to promote the best interest of the Navajo people. 

If after a trial of the regulations now in force it shall appear to be in 
the interest of the Navajo people to change the regulations, I have no doubt the Secre- 
tary of the Interior will consider the matter fully, when it is properly presented to 
him by you. There is the proper place to present your grievances, and the Secretary 
is the proper man to consider them. 

When you defendants return to your homes I hope you will remember what I have 
said to you today. You must all remember that I am your friend. 

Young Wisconsin Chippewa Indian Wins Acclaim 
For Rescuing Illinois Men From Drowning 

Some one of the many young Indians whose college education is being financed 
by Indian Office educational loans this year can thank John St. Germain, 19-year-old 
Chippewa of Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, for having made his studies possible. Last 
spring John was granted an educational loan by the Office of Indian Affairs, so that 
he could learn to be a mechanical engineer at the University of Wisconsin. He had 
proved himself to be a good student, as well as a fine athlete in high school, and 
was well recommended by his teachers. A few months later he wrote the Indian Office 
that he would not need the loan after all because he had been given money as a mark of 
appreciation for a heroic rescue. 

It all happened as the result of a motorboat ride John took one day on Big 
Crawling Stone Lake, with three Illinois state officials. They were John J. Hallihan, 
then State Director of Registration and Education; Martin J. O'Brien, public adminis- 
trator; and Arthur P. O'Brien, secretary to the late Governor Horner. About half a 
mile from shore the boat tipped over, spilling John and the three men into the cold 
choppy water. John was the only swimmer in the group, but by making three trips to 
shore through icy water, he brought the men to safety. 

Unfortunately Martin O'Brien collapsed when he reached the shore, and later 
died. A group of O'Brien's friends, in recognition of John's bravery, got together and 
made it possible for him to receive a scholarship of $300 at the University of Wiscon- 
sin, where he is now enrolled as a freshman. He was also awarded a bronze medal by the 
Carnegie Hero Fund Commission. The first thing John did upon receiving the scholarship 
was to turn his loan back to the Indian Office so that some other student might use it. 



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